What's the cost usually for a mobile GPU?
Anywhere between \$30 - \$130 for a mobile processor (such as Qualcomm's Snapdragon 845) or chipset which contains CPU, GPU, and other components necessary for a phone to run. (source). But that's for the whole chipset. In the case of the Galaxy S10, the processor uses an Adreno 640 GPU; I'm unsure of what the cost for the GPU alone would be.
In a similar direction, Google recently announced the Edge TPU for edge computing, specifically for on-device model training at low power/energy
To break the restrictions of mobile devices (limited battery, limited size), another type of method is to separate the calculation related to graphics to servers. Such examples include Geforce Now and Google Stadia.
Here's a brief introduction of GPU: https://www.androidpit.com/what-is-a-gpu
I'm curious -- what are the unique optimizations (other than ones described in class) made to get mobile GPU's powerful enough to render realistic graphics?
https://code.fb.com/android/delivering-real-time-ai-in-the-palm-of-your-hand/ this is a cool link from facebook if anyone is interested relating to mobile GPU optimizations
In this vein of optimizations in the real-world for mobile GPU's, Google Seurat is another one I recently came across: https://www.theverge.com/2017/5/18/15660218/google-seurat-daydream-mobile-vr-rendering-star-wars-io-2017